Cabinet Order (Kunrei) No.1

We establish the system for the romanization of Japanese as follows.

December 9, 1954

The Prime Minister Sigeru Yosida

Romanization of Japanese


  1. In order to transcribe the Japanese into Roman characters, you must follow Table One.
  2. But if international relations or the conventional or such exist and unable to follow Table One, then Table Two may be in order.
  3. In any cases, the notes below must generally be applied.
Table One [ shown in ( ) appear several times ]
a i u e o
ka ki ku ke ko kya kyu kyo
sa si su se so sya syu syo
ta ti tu te to tya tyu tyo
na ni nu ne no nya nyu nyo
ha hi hu he ho hya hyu hyo
ma mi mu me mo mya myu myo
ya (i) yu (e) yo
ra ri ru re ro rya ryu ryo
wa (i) (u) (e) (o)
ga gi gu ge go gya gyu gyo
za zi zu ze zo zya zyu zyo
da (zi) (zu) de do (zya) (zyu) (zyo)
ba bi bu be bo bya byu byo
pa pi pu pe po pya pyu pyo
Table Two
sha shi shu sho
cha chi chu cho
ja ji ju jo
di du
dya dyu dyo


Also as follows:

  1. The syllabic nasal (n, ng, m) must always be transcribed as "n".
    Example: konnitiwa / ongaku / sinbun / bunpô / kanmon
  2. When vowels or consonant y follow the syllabic nasal, add apostrophe (') after "n".
    Example: ren'ai / gen'in / sin'en / kon'ya
  3. Geminate consonants are marked by doubling the consonant.
    Example: gakkô / nessin / itti / ippon
  4. Long vowels are indicated by circumflex (^) above vowel letters.
    Example: ôkii / tîsai / nêsan / sûgaku / âto
  5. In case of capital-letter, long vowels may be indicated by doubling short vowels.
  6. There is no order for foreign sounds to transcribe.
    Example: hwirumu, firumu, film
  7. The first letter in a sentence, and all proper nouns, must be capitalized.
    Example: Nihongo wa yasasii rasii. / Sinkansen de Ôsaka e itta.
  8. Also, first letter of the common nouns may be capitalized.
    Example: Doitugo wa Koyû Meisi ni kagirazu Ômozi o tukau.

Cabinet Order No.1

for authorities concerned

Implementation guidance of Romanizing Japanese

We standardized the romanization of Japanese through Cabinet Order No.3 as of September 21, 1937 and put it into force, but later, several systems of the romanization have again emerged and been simultaneously practiced, which have sufferd us much complication in the official, academic and general records and communications. We believe that the standardization contributes to efficient businesses, effective educations, and advanced studies. That is the reason the Cabinet, today, has just announced the system of romanization as Cabinet Order No.1 based on the recommendation of the Japanese Language Council. We request all authorities to adapt this system when to transcribe the Japanese into Roman characters, and hope that you will recommend this system to all to be realized the importance of standardization.

Hereupon we repeal Cabinet Order No.3 as of September 21, 1937.

December 9, 1954

The Prime Minister Sigeru Yosida


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